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Mata Atlântica

Soils

Soils soil mata atlântica brazil
Adventure Travel / Brazil – The soil is an important factor that determines the flora (and related fauna) of the different ecosystems of the Atlantic Rainforest.

The prototypes of todays subparallel mountain chains Serra do Mar / Mantiqueira emerged about 80 million years ago during the Upper Cretaceous. Since then, erosional processes caused by wind, water and strong temperature variations resulted in a slow alteration and dissipation of their rocks and large quantities of terrestrial sediments were deposited along their escarpments and (primarily) at the feet of the hills and mountains.

During millions of years, nature adapted itself according to the different soil qualities found in different altitudinal zones forming different vegetation types, such as campos de altitude, cloud, submontane, montane and lowland tropical rainforest.

Distinct from the terrestrial sedimentation, the soils of the coastal plains were formed during recent geological times (cenozoic) by marine, fluvial and fluvio-marine sedimentation, giving rise to pioneer formations, such as restingas, caxetais / (caixetais) and mangroves – Brazil Travel / Mata Atlântica.